Observation – S4

S4 Observation

Scope note:

This class comprises the activity of gaining scientific knowledge about particular states of physical reality through empirical evidence, experiments and measurements.

We define observation in the sense of natural sciences, as a kind of human activity: at some place and within some time-span, certain physical things and their behavior and interactions are observed by human sensory impression, and often enhanced by tools and measurement devices.

Observed situations or dimensions may pertain to properties confined to a single instance of S15 Observable Entity or pertain to constellations of multiple instances and relations between them, in particular distances between them.

The output of the internal processes of measurement devices that do not require additional human interaction are in general regarded as part of the observation and not as additional inference. Primary data from measurement devices are regarded in this model to be results of observation and can be interpreted as propositions believed to be true within the (known) tolerances and degree of reliability of the device.

Measurements and witnessing of events are special cases of observations. Observations result in a belief that certain propositions held at a time within the time-span of the observation. In this model, the degree of confidence in the observed properties is regarded to be “true” by default, but could be described differently by adding a property P3 has note to an instance of S4 Observation

Examples:

  • the excavation of unit XI by the Archaeological Institute of Crete in 2004 (S4).
  • the excavation (S4) in the NE section of the central court of the Knossos palace by the Ephorate of Antiquities of Heraklion in 1997 (S4) (Επιστημονική Επιτροπή Κνωσού, 2008).
  • the observation of the density of the X-Ray image of cupid's head from the painting ‘Cupid complaining to Venus’ as ‘high density’, on the 19th of March 1963 (S4) (The National Gallery, London, 1963).
  • the observation of visible light absorption of the painting ‘Cupid complaining to Venus’ as ‘having red pigment’, in 2015 (S4) (Foister, 2015).

In First Order Logic:

  • S4(x) ⇒ E13(x)

Scope notes

Show Scope note Language Namespace View details Comments
This class comprises the activity of gaining scientific knowledge about particular states of physical reality through empirical evidence, experiments and measurements. We define observation in the sense of natural sciences, as a kind of human activity: at some place and within some time-span, certain physical things and their behavior and interactions are observed by human sensory impression, and often enhanced by tools and measurement devices. Observed situations or dimensions may pertain to properties confined to a single instance of S15 Observable Entity or pertain to constellations of multiple instances and relations between them, in particular distances between them. The output of the internal processes of measurement devices that do not require additional human interaction are in general regarded as part of the observation and not as additional inference. Primary data from measurement devices are regarded in this model to be results of observation and can be interpreted as propositions believed to be true within the (known) tolerances and degree of reliability of the device. Measurements and witnessing of events are special cases of observations. Observations result in a belief that certain propositions held at a time within the time-span of the observation. In this model, the degree of confidence in the observed properties is regarded to be “true” by default, but could be described differently by adding a property P3 has note to an instance of S4 Observation en CRMsci version 2.0 0

Examples

Show Example Language Namespace View details Comments
the excavation of unit XI by the Archaeological Institute of Crete in 2004 (S4). the excavation (S4) in the NE section of the central court of the Knossos palace by the Ephorate of Antiquities of Heraklion in 1997 (S4) (Επιστημονική Επιτροπή Κνωσού, 2008). the observation of the density of the X-Ray image of cupid's head from the painting ‘Cupid complaining to Venus’ as ‘high density’, on the 19th of March 1963 (S4) (The National Gallery, London, 1963). the observation of visible light absorption of the painting ‘Cupid complaining to Venus’ as ‘having red pigment’, in 2015 (S4) (Foister, 2015). en CRMsci version 2.0 0

Additional notes

Show Notes Type Language Namespace View details Comments

Identifier: S4

Official URI: http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/CRMsci/S4_Observation
OntoME URI: https://ontome.net/ontology/c369

Labels

Label Language Last updated View details Comments
Observation * en 2024-06-13 0

* : Standard label for this language

Namespace

Namespace Last updated
CRMsci version 2.0 2022-09-13
CRMsci version 1.2.3 2021-05-07

Parent classes

Class Class namespace Relation defined in Justification View details Edit Delete Comments
E13 Attribute Assignment CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 CRMsci version 2.0 0

Ancestor classes

Class Depth Class namespace Via
E1 CRM Entity 5 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13 - E7 - E5 - S15
E1 CRM Entity 6 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E2
E1 CRM Entity 6 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E92
E2 Temporal Entity 5 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4
E4 Period 4 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13 - E7 - E5
E5 Event 3 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13 - E7
E7 Activity 2 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13
E92 Spacetime Volume 5 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4
Thing 6 OntoME internal model - active version E13 - E7 - E5 - S15 - E1
Thing 7 OntoME internal model - active version E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E2 - E1
Thing 7 OntoME internal model - active version E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E92 - E1
S15 Observable Entity 4 CRMsci version 2.0 E13 - E7 - E5

Child and descendant classes

Class Depth Class namespace Via
E16 Measurement 2 CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3 S21
S3 Measurement by Sampling 2 CRMsci version 2.0 S21
S19 Encounter Event 1 CRMsci version 2.0
S21 Measurement 1 CRMsci version 2.0
S23 Position Determination 1 CRMsci version 2.0

Related classes

Relation Class Class namespace Justification Relation defined in View details Edit Delete Comments

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4 Observation crmsci:O16 observed value (value was observed by) E1 CRM Entity CRMsci version 2.0
S4 Observation crmsci:O8 observed (was observed by) S15 Observable Entity CRMsci version 2.0
S4 Observation crmsci:O9 observed property type (property type was observed by) S9 Property Type CRMsci version 2.0

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) crm:P1 is identified by (identifies) E41 Appellation CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) crm:P2 has type (is type of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) crm:P3 has note E62 String CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) crm:P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) E42 Identifier CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) crm:P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P4 has time-span (is time-span of) E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P173 starts before or with the end of (ends after or with the start of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P174 starts before the end of (ends after the start of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P175 starts before or with the start of (starts after or with the start of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P176 starts before the start of (starts after the start of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P182 ends before or with the start of (starts after or with the end of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P183 ends before the start of (starts after the end of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P184 ends before or with the end of (ends with or after the end of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) crm:P185 ends before the end of (ends after the end of) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period ) crm:P7 took place at (witnessed) E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period ) crm:P8 took place on or within (witnessed) E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period ) crm:P9 consists of (forms part of) E4 Period CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) crm:P11 had participant (participated in) E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) crm:P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at) E77 Persistent Item CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) crmsci:O13 triggered (was triggered by) E5 Event CRMsci version 2.0
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P14 carried out by (performed) E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P15 was influenced by (influenced) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P16 used specific object (was used for) E70 Thing CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P17 was motivated by (motivated) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P19 was intended use of (was made for) E71 Human-Made Thing CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) E5 Event CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P32 used general technique (was technique of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P33 used specific technique (was used by) E29 Design or Procedure CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P125 used object of type (was type of object used in) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) crm:P134 continued (was continued by) E7 Activity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E13 Attribute Assignment ) crm:P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E13 Attribute Assignment ) crm:P141 assigned (was assigned by) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E13 Attribute Assignment ) crm:P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) crm:P10 falls within (contains) E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) crm:P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) crm:P133 is spatiotemporally separated from E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) crm:P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of) E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) crm:P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of) E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity ) crmsci:O12 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension CRMsci version 2.0

Incoming properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace

Incoming properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P173 starts before or with the end of (ends after or with the start of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P174 starts before the end of (ends after the start of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P175 starts before or with the start of (starts after or with the start of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P176 starts before the start of (starts after the start of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P182 ends before or with the start of (starts after or with the end of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P183 ends before the start of (starts after the end of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P184 ends before or with the end of (ends with or after the end of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E2 Temporal Entity crm:P185 ends before the end of (ends after the end of) S4 Observation (is a E2) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E4 Period crm:P9 consists of (forms part of) S4 Observation (is a E4) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E5 Event crmsci:O13 triggered (was triggered by) S4 Observation (is a E5) CRMsci version 2.0
E7 Activity crm:P134 continued (was continued by) S4 Observation (is a E7) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E7 Activity crm:P15 was influenced by (influenced) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E7 Activity crm:P17 was motivated by (motivated) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E7 Activity crm:P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) S4 Observation (is a E5) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E13 Attribute Assignment crm:P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E13 Attribute Assignment crm:P141 assigned (was assigned by) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E17 Type Assignment crm:P41 classified (was classified by) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E18 Physical Thing crm:P196 defines (is defined by) S4 Observation (is a E92) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing crm:P62 depicts (is depicted by) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E31 Document crm:P70 documents (is documented in) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E32 Authority Document crm:P71 lists (is listed in) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E36 Visual Item crm:P138 represents (has representation) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E83 Type Creation crm:P136 was based on (supported type creation) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E89 Propositional Object crm:P129 is about (is subject of) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E89 Propositional Object crm:P67 refers to (is referred to by) S4 Observation (is a E1) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E92 Spacetime Volume crm:P10 falls within (contains) S4 Observation (is a E92) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E92 Spacetime Volume crm:P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with S4 Observation (is a E92) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E92 Spacetime Volume crm:P133 is spatiotemporally separated from S4 Observation (is a E92) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
E93 Presence crm:P166 was a presence of (had presence) S4 Observation (is a E92) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S4 Observation crmsci:O16 observed value (value was observed by) S4 Observation (is a E1) CRMsci version 2.0
S4 Observation crmsci:O8 observed (was observed by) S4 Observation (is a S15) CRMsci version 2.0
S6 Data Evaluation crmsci:O11 described (was described by) S4 Observation (is a S15) CRMsci version 2.0
S21 Measurement crmsci:O24 measured (was measured by) S4 Observation (is a S15) CRMsci version 2.0
S22 Segment of Matter crmsci:O23 is defined by (defines) S4 Observation (is a E92) CRMsci version 2.0
E95 Spacetime Primitive crm:P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by) S4 Observation (is a E92) CIDOC CRM version 7.1.3
S23 Position Determination crmsci:O32 determined position of (was located by) S4 Observation (is a S15) CRMsci version 2.0

Profiles using this class

Label Version Status Last updated
Phenomena Observation ongoing 1 Ongoing 2023-10-25

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