Observation – S4

This class does not yet have the minimum number of validated parts required for publication.

S4 Observation

Scope note:

This class comprises the activity of gaining scientific knowledge about particular states of physical reality gained by empirical evidence, experiments and by measurements. We define observation in the sense of natural sciences, as a kind of human activity: at some Place and within some Time-Span, certain Physical Things and their behavior and interactions are observed, either directly by human sensory impression, or enhanced with tools and measurement devices. The output of the internal processes of measurement devices that do not require additional human interaction are in general regarded as part of the observation and not as additional inference. Manual recordings may serve as additional evidence. Measurements and witnessing of events are special cases of observations. Observations result in a belief about certain propositions. In this model, the degree of confidence in the observed properties is regarded to be “true” per default, but could be described differently by adding a property P3 has note to an instance of S4 Observation, or by reification of the property O16 observed value. Primary data from measurement devices are regarded in this model to be results of observation and can be interpreted as propositions believed to be true within the (known) tolerances and degree of reliability of the device. Observations represent the transition between reality and propositions in the form of instances of a formal ontology, and can be subject to data evaluation from this point on.

Examples:

No example yet.

In First Order Logic:

  • S4(x) ⊃ E13(x)

Scope Notes

Show Scope note Language Namespace View details Comments Validation
This class comprises the activity of gaining scientific knowledge about particular states of physical reality gained by empirical evidence, experiments and by measurements. We define observation in the sense of natural sciences, as a kind of human activity: at some Place and within some Time-Span, certain Physical Things and their behavior and interactions are observed, either directly by human sensory impression, or enhanced with tools and measurement devices. The output of the internal processes of measurement devices that do not require additional human interaction are in general regarded as part of the observation and not as additional inference. Manual recordings may serve as additional evidence. Measurements and witnessing of events are special cases of observations. Observations result in a belief about certain propositions. In this model, the degree of confidence in the observed properties is regarded to be “true” per default, but could be described differently by adding a property P3 has note to an instance of S4 Observation, or by reification of the property O16 observed value. Primary data from measurement devices are regarded in this model to be results of observation and can be interpreted as propositions believed to be true within the (known) tolerances and degree of reliability of the device. Observations represent the transition between reality and propositions in the form of instances of a formal ontology, and can be subject to data evaluation from this point on. en CRMsci version 1.2.3 0 Candidate

Examples

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Additional notes

Show Notes Language Namespace View details Comments Validation

Identifier : S4

Labels

Label Language Last updated View details Comments Validation
Observation * en 2021-06-10 0 Candidate

* : Standard label for this language

Namespace

Namespace Last updated
CRMsci version 1.2.3 2021-05-07

Parent classes

Class Class namespace Relation defined in Justification View details Edit Delete Comments Validation
E13 Attribute Assignment CIDOC CRM version 6.2 CRMsci version 1.2.3 0 Candidate

Ancestor classes

Class Depth Class namespace Via
E1 CRM Entity 6 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E2
E1 CRM Entity 6 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E92
E1 CRM Entity 7 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E2 - S15
E2 Temporal Entity 5 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4
E4 Period 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13 - E7 - E5
E5 Event 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13 - E7
E7 Activity 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13
E92 Spacetime Volume 5 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4
Thing 7 OntoME internal model - active version E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E2 - E1
Thing 7 OntoME internal model - active version E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E92 - C5
Thing 7 OntoME internal model - active version E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E92 - E1
Thing 8 OntoME internal model - active version E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E2 - S15 - E1
S15 Observable Entity 6 CRMsci version 1.2.3 E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E2
C5 Region 6 CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing E13 - E7 - E5 - E4 - E92

Child and descendant classes

Class Depth Class namespace Via
S3 Measurement by Sampling 2 CRMsci version 1.2.3 S21
S19 Encounter Event 1 CRMsci version 1.2.3
S21 Measurement 1 CRMsci version 1.2.3

Related classes

Relation Class Justification Relation defined in View details Edit Delete Comments Validation

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4 Observation O16 observed value (value was observed by) E1 CRM Entity CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O8 observed (was observed by) S15 Observable Entity CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O9 observed property type (property type was observed by) S9 Property Type CRMsci version 1.2.3

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P1 is identified by (identifies) E41 Appellation CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P2 has type (is type of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P3 has note E62 String CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) E42 Identifier CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P22 has quality (is quality of) C28 Quantifiable Quality CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) L47 has comment E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) L4 has preferred label E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) L53 is not uniquely identified by E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P2 domain class has identity defining component (is identity defining component of domain class) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P10 time-independent entity association E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P39 has social connotation (is social connotation of) C30 Social Connotation CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P18 is identifying component of range class (range class has identity defining component) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P4 has time-span (is time-span of) E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P114 is equal in time to E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P115 finishes (is finished by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P116 starts (is started by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P117 occurs during (includes) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P119 meets in time with (is met in time by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P120 occurs before (occurs after) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P1 involves E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P5 is component of (has component) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period ) P7 took place at (witnessed) E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period ) P8 took place on or within (witnessed) E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period ) P9 consists of (forms part of) E4 Period CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period ) P6 took place at (was place of) C13 Geographical Place CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) P11 had participant (participated in) E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at) E77 Persistent Item CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) O13 triggers (is triggered by) E5 Event CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) O14 initializes (is initialized by) S16 State CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) P8 effects quality (result from) C1 Entity Quality CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event ) P9 ends (is ended by) C1 Entity Quality CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P14 carried out by (performed) E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P15 was influenced by (influenced) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P16 used specific object (was used for) E70 Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P17 was motivated by (motivated) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P19 was intended use of (was made for) E71 Man-Made Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) E5 Event CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P32 used general technique (was technique of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P33 used specific technique (was used by) E29 Design or Procedure CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P125 used object of type (was type of object used in) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P134 continued (was continued by) E7 Activity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) L29 has responsible organization (is responsible organization for) E40 Legal Body CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) L30 has operator (is operator of) E21 Person CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) L34 has contractor (is contractor for) E40 Legal Body CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) L35 has commissioner (is commissioner for) E40 Legal Body CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P19 has activity type (is type of activity) C3 Activity Type SDHSS CIDOC CRM supplement – ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P10 falls within (contains) E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P132 overlaps with E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P133 is separated from E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of) E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of) E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity ) O12 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension CRMsci version 1.2.3

Incoming properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace

Incoming properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E1 CRM Entity P10 time-independent entity association S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
E1 CRM Entity P18 is identifying component of range class (range class has identity defining component) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
E1 CRM Entity P2 domain class has identity defining component (is identity defining component of domain class) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity P1 involves S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity P114 is equal in time to S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P115 finishes (is finished by) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P116 starts (is started by) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P117 occurs during (includes) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P119 meets in time with (is met in time by) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P120 occurs before (occurs after) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P5 is component of (has component) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
E4 Period P9 consists of (forms part of) S4 Observation (is a E4 Period) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E5 Event O13 triggers (is triggered by) S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CRMsci version 1.2.3
E7 Activity P134 continued (was continued by) S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P15 was influenced by (influenced) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P17 was motivated by (motivated) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P141 assigned (was assigned by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E16 Measurement P39 measured (was measured by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E17 Type Assignment P41 classified (was classified by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing P62 depicts (is depicted by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E31 Document P70 documents (is documented in) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E32 Authority Document P71 lists (is listed in) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E36 Visual Item P138 represents (has representation) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E83 Type Creation P136 was based on (supported type creation) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P129 is about (is subject of) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P67 refers to (is referred to by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P10 falls within (contains) S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P132 overlaps with S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P133 is separated from S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E93 Presence P166 was a presence of (had presence) S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F29 Recording Event R20 recorded (was recorded through) S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F35 Nomen Use Statement R38 refers to thema (is thema of) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F40 Identifier Assignment R45 assigned to (was assigned by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F51 Pursuit R59 had typical subject (was typical subject of) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F52 Name Use Activity R63 named (was named by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
C11 Appellation in a language (Temporal Entity) P11 is appellation for language of (has appellation for language) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
S4 Observation O16 observed value (value was observed by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O8 observed (was observed by) S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S6 Data Evaluation O11 described (was described by) S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S21 Measurement O24 measured (was measured by) S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S22 Segment of Matter O23 is defined by (defines) S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CRMsci version 1.2.3
D2 Digitization Process L60 documents S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
D29 Annotation Object L43 annotates (is annotated by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
C15 Participation P11 is participation in S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) Social, legal and economic life (SDHSS) ongoing
C2 Social Event P43 has setting (is setting for) S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
C25 Intentional collective P36 has manifestation in (is manifestation of) S4 Observation (is a E4 Period) CIDOC CRM Top-Level Extension for Humanities and Social sciences (SDHSS) – ongoing
C23 Identifier Validity P18 is identification of (has identification) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) SDHSS CIDOC CRM supplement – ongoing

Profiles using this class

Label Version Status Last updated
Silknow generic 1 Ongoing 2021-06-15

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